AS ISO 10987:2021 – Earth-moving machinery -Sustainability-Terminology, sustainability factors and reporting.
reprocessing in a production process of the waste materials for the original purpose or for other purposes, together with processing as a means of generating energy
[SOURCE: ISO 167141
ability of component parts, materials or both that can be diverted from an end-of-life stream to be recovered
CO2 equivalent
common unit of measure for greenhouse gas emission used to calculate the total greenhouse gas effect
(global warming potential) of different greenhouse gas emissions
global warming poentlal
relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere
4 Sustainability factors
4.1 General
The sustainability factors presented in Table 1 apply for achieving the sustainability balance between environmental, social and economic needs during an earth-moving machine’s useful life and end-of- life. The useful life typically has the greatest impact on that balance. This impact is taken into account in the development process and the sustainability information for both useful life and end of life is covered in Table 1.
The general sustainability principles of ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 apply for the machine development process and manufacturing process.
Estimates taken from the application of these sustainability factors can be used to provide information for the work site or work project. The work•slte energy efficiency (see 4.2) and GHG (see 4.3) factors are best evaluated at the actual work site or work project level, where the total amount of energy/fuel used can be measured relative to the amount of work done to complete the work project.
NOTE Due to the variability and variety of machine operations (e.g. applications, operator skill or terrain), the estimates of energy use are not sufficiently accurate to enable comparisons between different machine models and sizes.
4.4 Product support for improving machine efficiency and use
The work-site energy efficiency and resulting work-site GHG emission for earth-moving-machine applications vary significantly depending upon the skill of and technique used by the operator, as well as the specific work-site operations. Operator training and work-site management aids can be used to improve the energy efficiency for machines, Manufacturers should provide operator training instruction and work-site operation aids that can enable the improvement of the machine application efficiency. Such Information and aids provide an immediate short-term opportunity for work sites to reduce the amount of GHGs.
NOTE Experience has shown that the most significant improvement in sustainability is from operator training and work-site management.
4.5 Machine air quality emissions
The machine air quality emissions factor refers to the engine emissions measured during engine emissions testing. The air quality emissions factor can be defined by providing the engine emissions level, such as the tier or stage level. These ratings define the maximum engine emission levels for nitrogen oxide (N05j, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM).
4.6 Machine material re-use, recyclability and recoverability
The machine material re-use factor provides information related to disposing of or dismantling machines at the end of their life. The three material re-use categories are as follows:
— remanufactureable content Is the percentage of the machine mass that could be used again after a rernanufacturing process in accordance with ISO 16714;
recyclable content is the percentage of a machine that could be recycled In accordance with ISO 16714;
recoverability Is the percentage of the machine that can be diverted from an end-of-life stream to be recovered in accordance with ISO 16714,
4.7 Safety
The safety sustainability factor for earth-moving machinery shows that a machine has been developed to be safely used during its useful life with trained operators, maintained machines and safe work- site organization. International Standards are available that define the technical performance parameters for earth-moving machinery safety, and machine safety levels may be determined by listing the standards with which the machine is compliant. ISO 20474 is one such standard addressing significant safety aspects of earth-moving machines. National or regional standards may also be listed. as appropriate.