AS ISO 3452.1:2020 – Non-destructive testing -Penetrant testing Part 1: General principles.
5.4 Equipment
The equipment used for carrying out penetrant testing depends on the number, size and shape of the parts to be tested. The equipment shall be as specified in ISO 3452-4.
5.5 EfTectiveness
The effectiveness of the penetrant testing depends upon many factors, including
a) types of penetrant materials and testing equipment,
b) surface preparation and condition;
c) material under examination and expected discontinuities,
d) temperature of the test surface,
e) penetration and development time, and
1) viewing conditions.
Control checks shall be carried out to demonstrate that the correct parameters are used. See Annex B.
6 Products, sensitivity and designation
6.1 Product family
Various test systems exist in penetrant testing.
A product family is understood as a combination of the following penetrant testing materials:
penetrant, excess penetrant remover (except method A) and developer. When tested In accordance with ISO 3452-2 the penetrant and excess penetrant remover shall be from a single manufacturer. Only approved product families shall be used.
6.2 Testing products
The products used for testing are given in Table 1.
6.3 Sensitivity
The sensitivity level of a product family shall be determined using reference block I in accordance with ISO 3452-3. The assessed level always refers to the method used for type testing of the approved product family.
6.4 Designation
The approved product family to be used for penetrant testing Is given a designation comprising the type, the method and the form for the testing products, and a figure which indicates the sensitivity level achieved by testing with the reference block I according to ISO 3452-3.
EXAMPLE An approved product family comprising fluorescent pcnetrant (I), water as the excess penetrant remover (A). a dry-powder developer (a). and a system sensitivity of level 2 gives the following penetrant testing system designation when using ISO 34S24 and ISO 34S2-2: product family ISO 3452-2 lAa Level 2.
8 Test procedure
8.1 WrItten test procedure
All testing shall be performed in accordance with an approved written procedure, which may be specific to or included in the relevant product standard.
8.2 Precleanlng
8.2.1 General
Contaminants such as scale, rust, oil, grease or paint shall be removed — if necessary using mechanical or chemical methods, or a combination of these. Precleaning shall ensure that the test surface is free From residues and that It allows the penetrant to enter any discontinuity. The cleaned area shall be large enough to prevent interference from areas adjacent to the actual test surface.
8.2.2 Mechanical precleaning
Scale, slag, rust, etc., shall be removed using suitable methods such as brushing, rubbing. abrasion. blasting or high-pressure water blasting. These methods remove contaminants from the surface and generally are incapable of removing contaminants from within surface discontinuities. In all cases care shall be taken to ensure that the discontinuitles are not masked by plastic deformation or clogging from abrasive materials. If necessary to ensure that discontinuities are open to the surface, subsequent etching treatment shall be carried out, followed by adequate rinsing and drying.
8.2.3 Chemical precleaning
Chemical precleaning shall be carried out, using suitable chemical cleaning agents, to remove residues such as grease, oil, paint or etching materials.
Residues from chemical precleaning processes can react with a penetrant and greatly reduce its sensitivity. Acids and chromates in particular can greatly reduce the fluorescence of fluorescent penetrants and the colour of the colour contrast penetrant. Therefore, chemical agents shall be removed from the surface under examination, after the cleaning process, using suitable cleaning methods, which may Include water rinsing.
8.2.4 Drying
As the final stage of precleaning, the parts to be tested shall be thoroughly dried, so that neither water nor solvent remains in the discontinuities.
8.3 Temperature
The testing material, the test surface and the ambient temperature shall be within the range from 10 C to SO °C, except for the drying process (8.2.4). Rapid temperature changes can cause condensation. which may interfere with the process and should be avoided.
For temperatures outside the range 10 °C to 50 °C, inspection shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 3452.5 or ISO 3452-6. as applicable.