(b) The end fitting and its connection to the hose and its inner liner shall be such that its static burst pressure. as demonstrated by test, is equal to or higher than that of the hose.
(c) Each hose assembly shall be hydrostatically tested at 1.25 times its design pressure.
4543 Installation. Flexible hoses shall be installed and used in such a manner as to prevent kinking and to minimize torsion, axial loads, twisting, and abrasion.
4544 Inspection and Evaluation
4544.1 Inspection
(a) The hose assembly shall he operationally leak tested after it is relocated or reconnected.
(b) Hose assemblies, including the connecting fittings, shall be visually examined at least daily when in use to determine the surface condition and general mechanical and structural condition. If the hose assembly is protected by a mechanical harrier in accordance with Section 60(X), it is exempt from this inspection.
4544.2 Evaluation. If there is a continuing leak from any portion of the pressurized hose assembly, or any of the reinforcement is exposed, the hose shall be removed from service.
4550 Electrical Power and Instrument FeedThroughs
(a) Design of electrical power and instrument feedthroughs shall incorporate positive means to prevent ejection of the conductor in the event of failure of the insulator.
(b) Designs ot these devices using pressure energizing seals, such as the Bridgman unbalanced area seal, shall ensure that the compressive strength of the conductor is not exceeded at operating pressures and temperatures up to and including test pressure.
(c) These devices shall each be tested to the pressure specified by the Owner but to not less than 1.25 times the rated operating pressure. Electrical characteristics shall he verified after pressure test.
4610 Design and Installation Requirements
((1) Relief device piping systems shall be sized to handle the full required flow without exceeding the allowable overpressure of the system and shall be designed to maintain system integrity during operation.
(b) Peak flow rate shall be considered when sizing relief devices for positive displacement pumps. Sec Nonmandatory Appendix B. para. B500.
(c) There shall be no restriction such as isolation valves on the inlet side of the overpressure device.
(d) Isolation devices may he used on the vent side of an overpressure device provided that there are adequate mechanical provisions. interlocks, or administrative controls to prevent restriction of’ the vent path with the system in Operation.
(e) Plugging of inlet passages with process materials shall be prevented.
U) Plugging and/or corrosion of vent systems due to external materials such as rainwater and side process streams entering the vent system shall he avoided.
(g) Appropriate containment of vented contents shall he evaluated per para. 6500.
(Ii) Provision shall be made to exclude or remove rainwater or condensate from vent lines. When multiple overpressure devices are connected to manifolds or flare systems, the Owner shall determine which devices will operate at the same time and install a system adequate for such operation.
(I) Vent systems on high pressure devices may be subject to large temperature variations and piping movements due to flashing of process fluids, and they are often constructed of heavy-wall piping. Any small branch connections shall he designed to accommodate such movement. Proper Support shall be provided for any valves or overhung weights.
U) Reactive forces are a very important consideration when installing pressure relief devices for high pressure systems. The high energy available can impart large forces to the system. Both steady state and transient dynamic forces shall he considered to give a total dynamic load to be used for designing piping restraints.
4710 Location of Vents
Vents shall be located to avoid injury to people and minimize potential for equipment damage.
(a) Venting may be manual, automatic, or due to overpressuring (relief devices).
(b) The possible ignition of flammables during venting shall he considered. The stack height shall he sufficient to allow safe evacuation from the proximity of’ a release. Refer to API Recommended Practice 521 for allowable thermal radiation exposure levels.