ASME B31T-2021 pdf – Standard Toughness Requirements for Piping.
3.3 Governing Thickness and Notes (CoLumns 2 and 3 of TabLe 3.1-1)
For T-number groups in which the low-temperature suitability varies significantly according to the material thickness, a governing thickness is listed in column 2 of Table 3.1-1 at various low-temperature service limit increments. When it is desired to refine the influence of the governing thickness, Mandatory Appendix I provides the continuous curves and tables that can be used at intermediate values or greater governing thicknesses. Since the governing thicknesses in Table 1-1 of Mandatory Appendix I are generally derived based on uniform increments of temperature, the table does not contain uniform increments of governing thickness. The continuous curves in Figures I-i and l-1M in Mandatory Appendix I should be consulted for the precise values.
For material T-number groups in which the low- temperature suitability is dependent on some other factor, those factors are given in the notes listed in column 3 of Table 3.1-1.
3.4 Low-Temperature Service Limit (CoLumn 4 of TabLe 3.1-1)
Column 4, the firsttemperature column in Table 3.1-1, is the low-temperature service limit, lithe design minimum temperature is equal to or warmer than this value, then low-temperature requirements do not apply. Materials within a T-number group may be used at this temperature or temperatures warmer than this limit without imposing any of the requirements of this Standard. This limit considers material properties and the influence of fabrication processes on the material properties.
3.5 MateriaL Requirements for Low-Temperature Service (CoLumns 5 and 6 of TabLe 3.1-1)
Column 5 lists the minimum permitted temperature of the material. When a temperature is listed, this is the design minimum temperature permitted for the Tnumber group regardless of impact testing or any other requirements except as permitted by column 18, where the applied stress is limited to 30% of the allowable.
Column 6 contains the minimum temperature without impact testing for the material. If the design minimum temperature is equal to or warmer than this value, the material does not require impact testing. If the design minimum temperature is colder than this value, impact testing of the material is required. For carbon steels, this limit may vary with governing thickness or stress ratio. Additional rows are provided in Table 3.1-1 for governing thickness variations. Interpolation between governing thicknesses is permitted. Figures and a table for the curves of the variation of temperature with governing thickness are provided in Mandatory Appendix I, and these may be used as an alternative to the values in Table 3.1-1. Permitted temperatures for stress ratios are provided for by using columns 10 through 18 instead of column 6 as discussed in para. 3.6.
3.6 Design Requirements for Low-Temperature
Service (CoLumns 10 Through 18 of TabLe 3.1-1)
3.6.1 Minimum MateriaL Temperature Without Impact Testing. Columns 10 through 17 list the minimum material temperature without impact testing based on design stresses and may be used for carbon steels provided
(a) the piping system is subjected to a hydrostatic test at no less than 1.5 times the design pressure
(b) the piping system is not subjected to unevaluated external loads such as maintenance loads, impact loads, and thermal shock
The curve used to generate columns 10 through 17 in Table 3.1-1 is provided in Mandatory Appendix II and may be used as an alternative to columns 10 through 17.
Column 18 lists the minimum low-temperature service limit achievable by limiting stresses to less than 10% of the tensile strength [i.e., the stress ratio (SR)  0.3j and may be used without any additional low-temperature service requirements. At these stress levels, the design margin is considered adequate to prevent a brittle fracture failure mode. The low-temperature service limit listed in column 18 may be used in lieu of that listed in column 4 when SR  0.3.
3.6.2 Stress Ratio. The stress ratio is defined as the maximum of the following:
(a) nominal pressure stress (based on minimum pipe wall thickness less allowances) divided by the allowable stress at the design minimum temperature.
(b) for piping components with pressure ratings, the pressure for the condition under consideration divided by the pressure rating at the design minimum temperature.